There are seven iCASP workstreams, six of which focus on delivering solutions to problems across the catchment; the seventh overarches the whole programme. The six solution-focused workstreams are carbon sequestration, climate resilience, drought & flood risk mitigation, flood forecasting, sustainable agriculture and water quality.
An iCASP project will typically have elements of several workstreams within it demonstrating the integrated nature of the work we do. When developing a project, proposers are required to think about which of the workstreams the project delivers to.
The seventh workstream, that cuts across everything we do, is social & economic analysis. A range of activities are underway to assess how the programme is making a difference through collating and analysing the impacts of our work and understanding stakeholders and how they benefit. This information is reported to our funder, the Natural Environment Research Council, to demonstrate the work underway, the difference it has made and also increase learning about ways that future funding might best support and achieve solutions to the problems encountered in the world around us.
Each workstream has a workstream lead sitting on our Executive Management Group (EMG) to ensure projects draw upon all the available expertise across the iCASP programme.
A new survey has just been launched by The Yorkshire Property Flood Resilience Pathfinder project to understand levels of Property Flood Resilience (PFR) across Yorkshire. This project is one of three national projects commissioned by DEFRA and is led by the City of York Council partnering with several local stakeholders including Yorkshire Water, Living with Water, the Environment Agency and Yorkshire based local authorities.
The project will work with communities, planning and construction professionals, the insurance sector, and local authorities to deliver sessions to encourage behaviour change regarding the perceptions of flood risk awareness and flood resilience.
Addressing a diverse audience base, a range of activities will be developed to actively involve and empower local communities and businesses to adopt measures to make themselves and their properties more resilient to flooding. All districts in the Yorkshire region have different experiences with flooding so including local context is a crucial part of the project’s approach.
iCASP has been commissioned to survey current knowledge, attitudes and uptake of PFR measures across the region at the start of the project. The survey will be repeated again at the end of the project to understand the impact the Pathfinder project has had.
The initial survey is appropriate for those who live, work or operate in Yorkshire and have been affected by flooding. All contributions through this survey will help inform the development of educational workshops being undertaken throughout 2020 to help improve awareness of, and overcome potential barriers to, the uptake of Property Flood Resilience.
iCASP’s Dr Jenny Armstrong and Dr Ben Rabb, working in collaboration with the Priestley International Centre for Climate have contributed to two chapters – one on the climate science focusing on the increased risks of flooding and droughts and the second suggesting ways in which we can work with natural processes to improve the resilience of households.
2019 was a record breaking year for both hot weather and autumn rainfall with the UK experiencing the hottest summer and warmest winter days ever recorded. This came on the back of the prolonged heatwave and joint hottest summer season on record in 2018. While insurance claims arising from too much water resulting in flooding are the stories we usually hear, there was also a surge in insurance subsidence claims as a result of the hot, dry conditions.
1.8 million people in the UK currently live in areas at significant risk from flooding, and this number is growing. If the current rate of warming continues the number of people at risk could rise to 2.6 million in as little as 20 years.
While our homes may be at risk, they are also a contributing factor to rising emissions. Heating and hot water in UK homes currently makes up 25% of total energy usage and 15% of greenhouse gas emissions, and more housing is planned.
The report highlights a range of actions that can be taken; from decarbonising our homes to reduce emissions to improving the resilience of households to the impacts of climate change. Suggested actions don’t just happen in our home, for example peatland preservation can not only sequester carbon helping reduce total emissions, but also reduce surface water runoff and in turn reduce flood risk.
Publication of the report marks the launch of the annual #ShowTheLove campaign from the Climate Coalition. Every February since 2015, people are encouraged to show the love for the things they want to protect from climate change, and showcase the ways they can create a safer world for future generations. Actions include making and sharing green hearts, writing to local MPs and starting conversations about climate change.
The Climate Coalition is the UK’s largest group of people dedicated to action against climate change. Along with their sister organisations Stop Climate Chaos Cymru and Stop Climate Chaos Scotland, they are a group of over 140 organisations — including the National Trust, Women’s Institute, Oxfam, and RSPB — and 22 million voices strong.
The cost of the 2015 Boxing Days floods was £47M in Calderdale alone, and the indirect knock-on effects to the regional economy was £179M. This is just from one flood event. In every flood event there is the immediate damage, loss and destruction which is often highly visible; the knock-on effects which are wide-reaching and significant are not always so obvious. With climate change we are likely to experience more extreme weather events that can lead to flooding, so we need to improve our resilience across society.
The Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) sector can be highly
vulnerable to flood impacts. Because a large proportion of the private sector
is made up of SMEs – about 99% of Yorkshire’s private sector is made up of SMEs
– flooding can have a massive impact across the wider region reaching areas
outside those that were flooded.
Our newest iCASP project seeks to address this issue through
supporting the SME sector to become more resilient to the impacts of flooding
so the negative impacts on the wider economy are reduced.
Currently there is a large knowledge gap about the impacts of flooding upon SME businesses; this lack of knowledge extends from the SMEs themselves, through insurers and lenders, local and sub-regional authorities to national government. The effect of this knowledge gap can mean SMEs not understanding how to protect themselves adequately, and insurers or lenders not understanding the risks and so not providing lending or insurance. At the government level this lack of knowledge can manifest as a lack of appropriate funding being included in businesses cases and missed opportunities for evidenced resource allocation and investment in preventive measures.
This project will bring together local authorities and the insurance sector to help them improve their understanding of the impacts of flooding upon SMEs, identify how they can support the sector to become better prepared for floods and help prioritise their responses if and when flooding occurs. A key aspect of the project will be a robust methodology that can be used to assess the direct and indirect costs of flooding. This will enable local authorities (LAs) to carry out future flood assessments and subsequently develop evidenced and robust business plans for funding to support better responses for any future flooding.
“The Leeds City Region Flood Review was published in 2016 and developed in partnership between West Yorkshire Combined Authority/LEP, local authorities, Yorkshire Water and the Environment Agency. The Review and its 19 recommendations aim to implement a more consistent and effective approach to both flood risk management and mitigation, and responding to future flood events across the City Region. Recommendation 3 of the Review relates directly to this project as it confirms the urgent need for a robust regional formula for modelling the indirect economic impact of flooding”.
The ability of lenders and insurers to accurately assess and understand the likely risks of flooding will enable them to understand the right level of risk, develop new products and properly price the current products unlocking access to them for SMEs who may currently be unable to do so. An improved understanding of the effectiveness of different protection and resilience measures could also boost an increase in lending for preventive purposes and thus better uptake of these important measures to improve resilience.
“The work package on insurance will cover an important gap as it provides valuable information to insurers/lenders and surveyors to increase our understanding of SME flood risk. When I hold my regular meetings with insurers, they are bought into the concept of resilience, but cannot move forward meaningfully to acknowledge it without more information and evidence. They want to understand from SMEs what is the real financial impact of a flood. But also, what difference in financial terms has, or could, a resilient strategy make to the cost of the claim. The tool that the project will co-create to assess the effectiveness of resilience measures will be key to identifying the most beneficial strategies SMEs can take to protect themselves”.
Insurance broker specialising in flood risk
As with all iCASP projects this has been co-designed and will be carried out in close collaboration with partners and stakeholders. Co-creation ensures efforts are joined-up to support widespread uptake in the Yorkshire region, and nationally, to spread the benefits of closing this current gap in our knowledge. This exciting new project will push the limits of our understanding on the economic impacts of flooding on SMEs and the effectiveness of property flood resilience measures. And, in collaboration with the City of York Pathfinder project “Yorkshire Future Flood Resilience”, it will work to improve the uptake of Property Flood Resilience across Yorkshire and the UK.