Payment for Outcomes

Integrating Natural Flood Management (NFM) into Payment for Outcomes (PfO) schemes in the Yorkshire Dales

This project will support a National Trust trial of Payment for Outcomes with a group of their tenant farmers in the Yorkshire Dales. iCASP will support the project by integrating NFM into the trial by drawing on modelling, monitoring, and opportunity mapping expertise from their other projects such as such as the Don Catchment Hidden Heritage Secret Streams and the Modelling NFM pilots across Yorkshire project.

The trial aims to test the feasibility of paying landowners for the outcomes achieved by different interventions.

Results from the trial, which is being run in partnership with the Yorkshire Dales National Park Authority, will inform the design and monitoring of DEFRA's new national Environmental Land Management Schemes (ELMS). It is an opportunity to both test the concept of payment to land managers in a real world situation, share lessons from the trial and encourage a debate about future land management.

iCASP will specifically focus on opportunities for tenant farmers being paid for delivering NFM, releasing payment for outcomes on reducing flood risk. We will help develop understanding of the opportunities and constraints for NFM amongst National Trust staff and their tenant farmers, and focus on how different interventions can be monitored to release payments. This work will help feed into Defra consultations via our partners.


University of Leeds
University of York
National Trust
Yorkshire Dales National Park Authority
Yorkshire Dales Rivers Trust

Project Team

Megan Klaar –University of Leeds
Colin Brown – University of York
Jenny Armstrong, Janet Richardson, Thomas Willis, Richard Grayson & Ben Rabb – iCASP Impact Translation Fellows
Ellie Shipp – University of Leeds
Stewart Clarke – National Trust
Elizabeth Sullivan – former National Trust
Helen Keep – Yorkshire Dales National Park Authority
Jack Hirst & Marie Taylor – Yorkshire Dales Rivers Trust


February 2019 – July 2020

Project Updates:



Main report


    Reflections document


      NFM Monitoring Tool

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